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Comprehensive Neuro-Ophthalmology for Adults & Children

Your eyes help you experience the world around you every day, and vision problems can be problematic if not addressed quickly. Sometimes, your vision problems don't come from your eyes at all. Instead, these issues may come from your brain or your nervous system.

Suppose you suspect the cause of your eye issues may be related to your neurological system, and your eye doctor suggests that may be the case during a routine eye exam. In that situation, you may need an appointment with a neuro-ophthalmologist for a diagnosis and treatment plan. Neuro-ophthalmic conditions require eye doctors with specialized training to address them correctly.

child having an eye exam

What Is Neuro-Ophthalmology?

Ophthalmology focuses on the full spectrum of eye care, from prescribing glasses and contact lenses to performing surgery. In some instances, visual disturbances or problems come from your central nervous system instead of your eyes. Nearly half of your brain is dedicated to sight and eye movement.

That's where neuro-ophthalmology comes into play. Neuro-ophthalmology is a subspecialty of ophthalmology combining neurology and ophthalmology. This field requires expertise in physical problems relating to your eyes, brain, nerves, and muscles. Additional training is needed to become a neuro-ophthalmologist or a pediatric neuro-ophthalmologist.

At its worst, issues relating to the nervous system can lead to loss of sight, impacting your optic nerves that transmit visual signals from your eyes to the brain. Trauma, inflammation, strokes, tumors, toxicities, or infections can cause neurological damage, which may lead to vision problems. Common issues relating to neuro-ophthalmology include optic nerve issues, visual field loss, double vision, abnormal eye movements, myasthenia gravis, and unequal pupil size. Still, there are other issues this type of eye doctor can address during your visit.

If you've experienced any loss of visual acuity, visual field or color vision, have issues moving your eyes, have been diagnosed with a tumor, experience other unexplained vision problems, or have unequal pupils, it's best to consult with a neuro-ophthalmologist.


Adult Eye Exam

What Does a Neuro-Ophthalmologist Do?

A neuro-ophthalmologist evaluates and diagnoses neurological and systemic diseases that affect your eyes. You may require a neuro-ophthalmologist for instances where visual disturbances remain unresolved despite ophthalmic and neurological evaluations. Diagnostic services may include:

  • Fundus photography—using a high-resolution camera to capture images of the eye and optic nerve accurately
  • Humphrey visual testing—screens patients for potential optic nerve conditions
  • Optical coherence tomography-—uses light waves to take pictures of the inside of the retina
Pediatric Eye Exam

What Does Neuro-Ophthalmology Treat?

A neuro-ophthalmologist collaborates with other disciplines, including endocrinology, neuroradiology, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, and radiation oncology, to diagnose and then treat numerous conditions. That treatment may include surgery for adults or children, depending on the situation.

Women, in particular, may benefit from visiting a neuro-ophthalmologist as they are more likely to experience neurological problems like migraines and multiple sclerosis that can produce ophthalmic complications.

The conditions that may require assessment or treatment by a neuro-ophthalmologist or a pediatric neuro-ophthalmologist can seem like regular eye issues but may be something more. If you or your optometrist suspect something is wrong with your or your child's eyes, schedule an appointment with a neuro-ophthalmologist.

Adult Treatment

In adults, a neuro-ophthalmologist will look for neurological problems if your vision problems include:

  • Diplopia (double vision)
  • Strabismus or failure of the two eyes to maintain proper alignment and work together
  • Double vision
  • Intracranial lesions
  • Pupillary abnormalities
  • Unexplained vision loss
  • Stroke
  • Concussions
  • Brain tumors and aneurysms
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Myasthenia Gravis or muscle weakness
  • Pseudotumor Cerebi or benign brain pressure
  • Temporal arteritis, also known as when the temporal arteries become inflamed or damaged
  • Optic nerve diseases like optic neuritis and neuropathy
  • Grave's Disease impacting the thyroid
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Lyme Disease
  • Meningitis or brain inflammation
  • Degenerative neurological diseases
  • Facial movement disorders and headache
  • Blepharospasm or eyelid twitching
  • Hemifacial spasm occurring on ½ the face
  • Migraine
  • Torticollis or head and neck tilting

Children and Infant Treatment

When treating children's eye issues, a pediatric neuro-ophthalmologist will check for problems that may stem from:

  • Congenital malformations of the eye and brain
  • Genetic disorders like Down's Syndrome
  • Brain disorders like hydrocephalus and cerebral palsy
  • Concussions
Girl with glasses on

Our Doctors Who Specialize in Neuro-Ophthalmology

When you have eye issues that require specialized attention, it helps to have eye care professionals close by to serve your needs and help you deal with your vision problems. We're fortunate to have a dedicated, full-time neuro-ophthalmologist and specialist on board in our Lancaster, PA, eye care center.

Lee A. Klombers

Dr. Klombers

Dr. Klombers' calm and patient manner sets his patients at ease immediately, while his skill at solving problems and putting his patients' best interest first has earned him recognition as one of the top doctors in the nation.

Dr. Klombers has specialized in neuro-ophthalmology since he began his private practice over 26 years ago and currently sees over 11,000 patients every year, performing over 500 surgical procedures on both adults and children.


If you've been experiencing visual disturbances or issues that have remained undiagnosed, schedule a visit with our neuro-ophthalmologist today. We'll evaluate your condition, diagnose the problem and provide a treatment course.

It's essential to bring any relevant medical records to your appointment, including radiology reports or any MRI or CT scans of your brain or eyes. Neuro-ophthalmology examinations may take longer than a routine eye exam. See what our neuro-ophthalmology service can do for you today!


Campus Eye Center is an exceptional eye center with experienced eye doctors, Ophthalmogists and Optometrists, in Lancaster, PA.
We offer total vision care including contact lenses and revolutionary Lasik eye surgery at our eye and laser center.

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